Imperial Cleaning

Joe Wright

While the Province of Bologna has a population of 1,,, [50] making it the twelfth most populated province of Italy, Emilia-Romagna ranks as the sixth most populated region of Italy, with about 4. Il en profite pour écrire la bande originale.

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In particular, Bologna is considered the centre of the so-called "packaging valley", an area well known for its high concentration of firms specialised in the manufacturing of automatic packaging machines. The city's Fiera District exhibition centre is one of the largest in Europe, extending over , m2 of covered and outdoors areas.

Bologna is also a key railway and motorway hub in Italy, connecting the northern powerhouses of Lombardy and Venetia with Rome and the south. Bologna is home to the Guglielmo Marconi International Airport , recently [63] expanded to accommodate larger aircraft. Today, it is the seventh busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic 8 million passengers handled in Bologna Centrale railway station is one of the most important train hubs in Italy thanks to the city's strategic location.

It serves 58 million passengers annually. A large commuter rail service is currently under development see Bologna metropolitan railway service.

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bologna, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 53 min. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 5. At the end of , the city proper had a population of , while 1 million live in the greater Bologna area , located in the province of Bologna, Emilia Romagna , of whom Minors children ages 18 and younger totalled This compares with the Italian average of The average age of Bologna resident is 51 compared to the Italian average of In the five years between and , the population of Bologna grew by 0.

As of [update] , The largest immigrant group came from other European countries mostly Romanians and Albanians: The University of Bologna , conventionally said to have been founded in by glossators Irnerius and Pepo , [69] is considered the oldest university in the world. It was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from Italy and throughout Europe. The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality.

In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni , in the north-eastern sector of the city centre. Laura Bassi , appointed in , became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history, Luigi Galvani , the discoverer of bioelectromagnetics , and Guglielmo Marconi , the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University.

The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy. To this day, Bologna is still very much a university town, with over 80, enrolled students in This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students. In addition, Bologna hosts a music school , Conservatorio Giovanni Battista Martini , established in and a art school , Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna , founded in Both institutions were born as part of the reforms introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Over the centuries, Bologna has acquired many nicknames: It was one of the first European cities to experiment with the concept of free public transport. According to UNESCO, "As the first Italian city to be appointed to the Network, Bologna has demonstrated a rich musical tradition that is continuing to evolve as a vibrant factor of contemporary life and creation.

It has also shown a strong commitment to promoting music as an important vehicle for inclusion in the fight against racism and in an effort to encourage economic and social development. Fostering a wide range of genres from classical to electronic, jazz, folk and opera, Bologna offers its citizens a musical vitality that deeply infiltrates the city's professional, academic, social and cultural facets.

The theatre was a popular form of entertainment in Bologna until the 16th century. The first public theater was the Teatro alla Scala, active since in Palazzo del Podestà.

An important figure of Italian Bolognese theatre was Alfredo Testoni , the playwright, author of The Cardinal Lambertini , which has had great theatrical success since , repeated on screen by the Bolognese actor Gino Cervi.

In , the City of Bologna initiated the project "Bologna dei Teatri" Bologna of the Theatres , an association of the major theatrical facilities in the city. This is a circuit of theatres which offer diverse theatrical opportunities, ranging from Bolognese dialect to contemporary dance , but with a communications strategy and promoting unity.

Specifically, the shows on the bill in various theatres participating in the project are advertised weekly through a single poster. Bologna's opera house is the Teatro Comunale di Bologna. The Orchestra Mozart , whose music director was Claudio Abbado until his death in , was created in Bologna hosts a number of international music, art, dance and film festivals, including Angelica [78] Bologna and Contemporanea festivals on contemporary music , [79] Bolognafestival international classical music festival , [80] Bologna Jazz Festival, [81] Biografilm Festival a film festival devote to biographic movies , [82] BilBolBul a comics festival , [83] Danza Urbana a street contemporary dance festival [84] F.

Co festival on contemporary art, now merged in Live Arts Week Future Film Festival animation and special effects , [85] Il Cinema Ritrovato film festival about rare and forgotten movies , [86] Live Arts Week , Gender Bender festival on gender identity, sexual orientation and body representation , [87] Homework festival electronic music festival , [88] Human Rights Film Festival, [89] Some Prefer Cake lesbian film festival , [90] Zecchino d'Oro a children's song contest.

Bologna is renowned for its culinary tradition. It has baptised the famous Bolognese sauce , a meat-based pasta sauce that in Italy is called ragù and is substantially different from the variety found worldwide; moreover, in Bologna the sauce is used only as a dressing for tagliatelle , serving it with spaghetti being considered odd.

As in all of Emilia-Romagna, the production of cured pork meats such as prosciutto , mortadella and salumi is an important part of the local food industry. Torta di riso , a custard-like cake made of almonds, rice and amaretto, is made throughout the year. A sporting nickname for Bologna is Basket City in reference to the successes of the town's two rival historic basketball clubs, Fortitudo and Virtus , though the clubs are now often referred to by the names of their current sponsors.

The rivalry is temporarily dormant since Fortitudo left the country's professional ranks when, following the —09 season , the club was relegated from the top-level Lega A to LegADue , before being relegated further to the nominally amateur Serie A Dilettanti for financial reasons; in the —13 season, Fortitudo will play in the LegADue. Football also has a strong tradition in Bologna. The city's main club, Bologna F.

The club play at the 38,capacity Stadio Renato Dall'Ara , which has hosted the Italian national team in both football and rugby union , as well as the San Marino national football team. Rugby union is also present in the city: Rugby Bologna is not only one of the oldest Italian rugby union clubs but also the first ever club affiliated to the Italian rugby union federation.

The club took part to the top tier of the Italian championship for the first 25 years of their history never winning the title but getting to the runner-up place several times; they returned in top division Serie A1 then Super 10 , in the late s and faced serious financial problems which led them to the relegation and almost to disappearance. Bologna is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city in Italy. For the food, see Bologna sausage.

For other uses, see Bologna disambiguation. For other uses, see Bologne disambiguation and Bolognese disambiguation. Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. List of mayors of Bologna. Buildings and structures in Bologna. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy.

Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 30 November The Challenge of Bologna. Retrieved 7 July A History of the University in Europe: Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 24 January Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 5 December The Oxford classical dictionary 3rd ed. Explicit use of et al.

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Bologna during the Black Death. Crisis and change in the Venetian economy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Rome in the Age of Enlightenment: The early modern papacy: Benedict XIV and the Enlightenment: Art, Science, and Spirituality.

University of Toronto Press. Italy in the age of the Risorgimento: Crime, disorder, and the Risorgimento: An Economic History of Liberal Italy: Agrarian Elites and Italian Fascism: The Province of Bologna, Testi di Franco Il Museo Virtuale della Certosa in Italian. Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 2 May Revitalizing historic urban quarters Reprinted.

Modern Architectures in History 1. Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 5 March Record mensili dal " in Italian. Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 4 November Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 18 October An institution of federalism" PDF.

Retrieved 23 May Nation's cities, Volume National League of Cities. Garisenda e degli Asinelli". Official tourism promotion website of Emilia-Romagna region.

Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 1 June San Petronio de Bologna: The sum each of the pairs can be calculated as one cuboid of double width. Knowing the height of the central nave and the width of the building, the measures of the sections can be calculated by measuring an orthograde photo of the facade.

Chamber of Commerce of Emilia-Romagna. Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original PDF on 12 December Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. A history of the university in Europe 1st pbk. Retrieved 18 January Même Public Enemy , qui a révolutionné le hip-hop , cite Clash comme leur principale influence. Bruce Springsteen a également cité The Clash comme une de ses principales influences musicales. Il a d'ailleurs régulièrement repris les titres London Calling et Clampdown.

Les Clash sont également en partie responsable de l'explosion des groupes garage [ 7 ] dans les années et Il travaille également avec Mick Jones et son groupe Big Audio Dynamite , participant à leur deuxième album en coécrivant la plupart des chansons. Il en profite pour écrire la bande originale. Il reprend en London Calling en concert en compagnie des Pogues. Le concert est filmé et publié sous le titre The Pogues: En enfin, il fait une brève apparition en tant que guitariste dans un pub , dans le film J'ai engagé un tueur [ 8 ] mis en scène par Aki Kaurismäki , où il chante deux titres Burning Lights et Afro-cuban Be-bop.

Durant cette période, Joe Strummer continue à jouer la comédie, à écrire et produire des bandes originales pour divers films, notamment celle de Tueurs à gages [ 9 ]. Néanmoins, l' album Earthquake Weather est un flop critique et commercial, ce qui pousse Sony Records à mettre fin à son contrat.

C'est également avec ce groupe qu'il réalise la b-o du film Permanent Record [ 10 ]. En , il remplace Shane MacGowan comme chanteur des Pogues pour une tournée, après le départ du célèbre chanteur irlandais.

Il en profite pour produire l' album des Pogues Hell's Ditch. Le 16 avril , Strummer rejoint sur scène le groupe américano-tchèque Dirty Pictures pour Rock for Refugees à Prague , un concert caritatif pour les exilés de la guerre en Yougoslavie. Accompagné des Pictures, Strummer joue un furieux set de chansons des Clash qu'il avoue ne pas avoir repris en plus de dix ans. Ossang , un sombre road-movie, inspiré de la Nouvelle Vague et du western, tourné au Chili.

À cette époque, Strummer se sent prisonnier du contrat qui le lie avec Sony Records qui a signé les Clash. Le différend qui dure pendant 8 ans se termine par l'accord du label pour laisser Strummer enregistrer ses propres albums solo avec un autre label. En revanche, si les Clash venaient à se réunir de nouveau, ils devraient enregistrer avec Sony.

Finalement, dans la deuxième moitié des années , Joe Strummer regroupe des musiciens dans un groupe qu'il nomme The Mescaleros. Une tournée en Angleterre et aux États-Unis suit bientôt, dont des concerts incluant plusieurs reprises des tubes favoris des Clash.

En , ils signent avec le label punk californien Hellcat Records et pondent un nouvel opus qu'ils intitulent Global a Go-Go. L'album est suivi d'une tournée de 21 dates à travers l'Amérique du Nord, la Grande-Bretagne et l'Irlande. De plus, le groupe termine régulièrement ses spectacles par un hommage au défunt Joey Ramone en jouant Blitzkrieg Bop des Ramones. À la surprise générale, Mick Jones , présent aussi ce jour-là, rejoint le groupe sur scène pendant Bankrobber , un classique des Clash.

Pour la première fois depuis , soit près de vingt ans, Strummer et Jones se retrouvent ensemble sur scène. Jones affirme plus tard que ceci était totalement improvisé et qu'il se sentait obligé de rejoindre Strummer sur scène [ 12 ].

La dernière prestation de Joe Strummer a lieu le 22 novembre au Liverpool Academy. Strummer avait même prévu de jouer lors du concert de collecte de fonds organisé par Mandela en février à Robben Island.

Joe Strummer meurt le 22 décembre dans sa maison de Broomfield dans le Somerset , victime d'une cardiopathie congénitale jamais diagnostiquée. Sa mort prématurée à l'âge de 50 ans a choqué et attristé une génération de fans pour qui il était une personnalité emblématique. Au moment de sa mort, Strummer travaille sur un autre album, qui sort finalement à titre posthume en octobre sous le titre Streetcore.

Cet album contient aussi un hommage à l'icône de la musique américaine Johnny Cash [ 13 ] Long Shadow , qui a d'abord été écrit pour Cash et enregistrée dans le garage de Rick Rubin. On y trouve aussi une chanson en mémoire des attentats du 11 septembre , Ramshackle Day Parade , et une reprise du classique de Bob Marley , Redemption Song , dont Joe Strummer a également enregistré une version en duo avec Johnny Cash [ 14 ].

En plus de sa musique, Strummer a grandement contribué à Future Forests rebaptisée The Carbon Neutral Company , une association dédiée au repiquage d'arbres dans diverses parties du globe dans le but de combattre le réchauffement climatique.

Beaucoup d'autres artistes tels que les Foo Fighters , Coldplay et Pink Floyd ont suivi le mouvement et les fans peuvent aujourd'hui visiter le site web de l'association pour acheter des arbres à planter dans la forêt de leur artiste préféré.

En sa mémoire, les amis et la famille de Strummer ont créé la fondation Strummerville pour la promotion des nouvelles musiques. Sa compagne, Lucinda Tait, en assure la direction [ 15 ]. Stiff Little Fingers , le groupe de punk rock originaire de Belfast , a aussi enregistré une chanson hommage Strummerville sur leur album Guitar and Drum.

Le groupe espagnol Muletrain lui dédie son premier album studio, intitulé Demolition Preachin, enregistré en La plaque nominative fut inaugurée par sa veuve Lucinda Tait durant une cérémonie à la gare de Bristol Temple Meads [ 16 ]. Le 22 juillet , Tait inaugura une plaque sur la maison de Pentonville où Strummer vécut de à et où la chanson Crummy Bum Blues , sa toute première incursion dans le monde de la musique, fut enregistrée [ 17 ].

Tout au long de sa carrière ses fans purent remarquer sa disponibilité, la légende dit que Strummer ne s'est jamais dérobé devant ses fans, s'assurant que chaque personne ait reçu un autographe et ait pu parler personnellement avec lui, une procédure qui durait parfois des heures. Avec les Mescaleros , il continua à jouer des titres des Clash pour faire plaisir à ses fans.

Ce film, terminé après la mort de Joe Strummer, est une chronique de la tournée américaine des Mescaleros pour la promotion de l'album Global a Go-Go [ 18 ]. En , Julien Temple réalise le documentaire Joe Strummer: The Future is Unwritten. Il retrace son parcours de sa naissance à sa mort, des Clash aux Mescaleros, à l'aide de nombreux témoignages, d'amis d'enfance, de proches et de musiciens, notamment Bono , Topper Headon et Mick Jones [ 19 ].

Dans l'un des couplets Jakob Dylan cite les membres du groupe dont Jack Irons où il scande: D'une manière générale, les artistes et les fans qui l'ont contoyé témoignent tous d'un homme intègre et personnellement engagé dans les efforts exigés par son idéal, dont la vie est à l'image de ses convictions.

L'image de Joe Strummer est indissociable de sa guitare, une Fender Telecaster modèle 66 malmenée et repeinte à l' aérographe en gris puis en noir. Lorsque The Clash rencontre le succès, il reçoit de nombreuses propositions pour jouer sur des guitares neuves, qu'il décline toutes. Il n'utilise pratiquement que cet instrument sur la suite de sa carrière, orné successivement de différents autocollants dont le célèbre "ignore Alien orders".

La légende prétend qu'elle se trouve désormais dans son cercueil. En , Fender lui dédie un modèle signature:

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