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It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I , who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II , was born in Arles. Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire.
It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around and continuing with Saint Honoratus , then Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St.
Caesarius, bishop of Arles —, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in , when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.
The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy , even heresy , in Occitan culture. At Treves in , Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars , Camisards. Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils see Council of Arles , the rival of Vienne , for hundreds of years.
The Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille , a few kilometres from Arles.
The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world ". There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, and a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex. The mill consisted of 16 waterwheels in two separate rows built into a steep hillside.
There are substantial masonry remains of the water channels and foundations of the individual mills, together with a staircase rising up the hill upon which the mills are built. The mills apparently operated from the end of the 1st century until about the end of the 3rd century.
Examination of the mill leat still just visible on one side of the hill shows a substantial accretion of lime in the channel, tending to confirm its long working life. It is thought that the wheels were overshot water wheels with the outflow from the top driving the next one down and so on, to the base of the hill.
There are also later references to floating water mills from Byzantium and to sawmills on the river Moselle by the poet Ausonius. The use of multiple stacked sequences of reverse overshot water-wheels was widespread in Roman mines. The next year, Charles campaigned south to Septimania and Provence, attacking and capturing Arles after destroying Avignon. Charles definitely drove Maurontus to exile, and brought Provence to heel. In , it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles , which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders.
In , Rudolph, Count of Auxerre now in north-western Burgundy , founded the kingdom of Transjuran Burgundy literally, beyond the Jura mountains , which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais , Geneva , Chablais and Bugey. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the kingdom's territory was progressively incorporated into France.
During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.
The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected podestat chief magistrate; literally "power" , who appointed the consuls and other magistrates.
It retained this status until the French Revolution of Arles joined the countship of Provence in , but, once more, its prominence was eclipsed by Marseilles. In the 19th century, the arrival of the railway diminished river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater. This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh , who arrived there on 21 February Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles.
However, van Gogh's mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the well-known ear-severing incident in December which resulted in two stays in the Old Hospital of Arles.
The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. Arles had an important and prominent Jewish community between the Roman era and the end of the 15th century. A local legend describes the first Jews in Arles as exiles from Judaea after Jerusalem fell to the Romans. Nevertheless, the first documented evidence of Jews in Arles is not before the fifth century, when a distinguished community already existed in the town.
Arles was an important Jewish crossroads, as a port city and close to Spain and the rest of Europe alike. It served a major role in the work of the Hachmei Provence group of famous Jewish scholars, translators and philosophers, who were most important to Judaism throughout the Middle Ages.
At the eighth century, jurisdiction over the Jews of Arles were passed to the local Archbishop, making the Jewish taxes to the clergy somewhat of a shield for the community from mob attacks, most frequent during the Crusades. The community lived relatively peacefully until the last decade of the 15th century, when they were expelled out of the city never to return. Several Jews did live in the city in the centuries after, though no community was found ever after.
Nowadays, Jewish archaeological findings and texts from Arles can be found in the local museum. Arles has a Mediterranean climate with a mean annual temperature of The city is constantly, but especially in the winter months, subject to the influence of the mistral , a cold wind which can cause sudden and severe frosts.
The Church of St. Trophime Saint Trophimus , formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture , and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister. The courtyard of the Old Arles hospital, now named "Espace Van Gogh," is a center for Vincent van Gogh's works, several of which are masterpieces. A circulation gallery is located on the first and second floors.
The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France's Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, , that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today.
The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar's portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator's assassination.
Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them Paul Zanker, the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus , were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar. After a further stylistic assessment, Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the terminus post quem for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar's assassination in 44 BC.
The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews. AC Arles-Avignon is a professional French football team. They currently play in Championnat de France Amateur, the fourth division in French football. They play at the Parc des Sports , which has a capacity of just over 17, Arles is a cultural hotspot.
Some critics have accused Goldin of making heroin use appear glamorous and of pioneering a grunge style that later became popularized by youth fashion magazines such as The Face and I-D . However, in a interview with The Observer , Goldin herself called the use of " heroin chic " to sell clothes and perfumes "reprehensible and evil. I wanted to be one.
I wanted to be a junkie. That's what intrigues me. Part was the Velvet Underground and the Beats and all that stuff. But, really, I wanted to be as different from my mother as I could and define myself as far as possible from the suburban life I was brought up in.
Goldin denies the role of voyeur; she is instead a queer insider sharing the same experiences as her subjects: This is my family, my history. An exhibition of Goldin's work was censored in Brazil, two months before opening, due to its sexually explicit nature. The curator of the Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modern Art changed the schedule in order to accommodate, in February , the Goldin exhibition in Brazil.
Both Goldin and Diane Arbus celebrate those who live marginal lives. Both artists ask to reexamine artists' intentionality. Referring to images shown in Ballad, "the beaten down and beaten up personages, with their gritty, disheveled miens, which populate these early pictures, often photographed in the dark and dank, ramshackle interiors, relate physically and emotionally to the alienated and marginal character types that attracted Antonioni" .
The youths in Larry Clark 's Tulsa presented a striking contrast to any wholesome, down-home stereotype of the heartland that captured the collective American imagination.
He turned the camera on himself and his lowlife amphetamine-shooting board of hanger-ons. The photographs by the character Lucy Berliner, played by actress Ally Sheedy in the film High Art , were based on those by Goldin. The photographs shown in the film, Working Girls as taken by the lead character "Molly," were actually those of Goldin.
Curated by Goldin at Artists Space, Witnesses: Goldin noted that artists' works varied in response, as "out of loss comes memory pieces, tributes to friends and lovers who have died; out of anger comes explorations of the political cause and effects of the disease.
Additionally, Wojnarowicz speaks about the efficacy of making the private public via the model of outing , as he and Goldin believed empowerment begins through self-disclosure.
Embracing personal identities then becomes a political statement that disrupts oppressive rules of behavior of bourgeois society — though Wojnarowicz does admit outing may lock a subject into a single frozen identity. Goldin's show, and in particular Wojnarowicz's essay, was met with criticism, leading to the National Endowment of Arts rescinding its support for the publication.
Goldin's second curated show, From Desire: Brush Art Gallery at St. Lawrence University , Canton, NY. Rencontres d'Arles festival, Arles, France.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nan Goldin Goldin, The ballad of sexual dependency. Retrieved 23 October Retrieved January 1, Archived from the original on April 25, Gagosian Gallery , Rome. The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on And I have a bit of a problem with it. Like this Dior campaign right now, where the girl is really dope-sick then she sprays Addiction perfume and suddenly she's high.
I find that really reprehensible and evil. Retrieved 6 March Archived from the original on 6 August Retrieved 20 November Les Rencontres d'Arles , Arles, France". Lippard papers, s, bulk s".